Planning experiments is a very valuable skill for scientists, and the International Space Station has provided an incredibly unique Essay

Planning experiments is a very valuable skill for scientists, and the International Space Station has provided an incredibly unique environment for experimentation. In many of the other labs in this course, you’re tasked with carrying out a specific experiment or set of instructions. In this assignment, you get to plan an experiment from scratch! If you need to brush up on the basics of designing an experiment, you can Watch this video:

The “zero gravity” environment of the space station can make for a lot of interesting experiments, but that’s just a starting point and you can go in another direction if you’d like. As long as your experiment can only be done in space, it will count for this assignment! Check out this article about different studies conducted on the ISS for some potential ideas to get you started, however, you should not be copying these experiments.

Imagine you’re a NASA scientist, proposing an experiment that will be conducted on the ISS to a potential investor/supporter. Your assignment is to write a Research Proposal that contains the following information. Be sure to cite your sources using in-text citations and a reference list in APA format.

Background and Justification: What background information can you give that is relevant to the experiment? Why is this experiment important to conduct? Has other similar research been done? Remember to cite your sources for research.

Variables: What is your independent variable (the quantity you’re changing)? What is your dependent variable (the quantity you’re measuring)?

Constants: What factors have to be kept constant during your experiment? How will you make sure they are kept constant?

Assumptions: Will you be making any assumptions during your experiment? What are they? How would the outcome of your experiment be affected if you assumed incorrectly?

Hypothesis: With all of this information in mind, make an educated guess as to the results. This should be an “If —, then —-” statement.

Materials: What materials will you need? Is there anything special you’d have to bring up from Earth?

Procedure: Create a detailed, step-by-step procedure for the astronauts who will conduct the experiment. Make sure they know how to set up the experiment, what measurements they’re taking and with what frequency, as well as how and where to record information.

Data processing: Once you have your data, what will you do with it? Will you make a graph, and if so, what will it tell you? Will you run a secondary experiment based off the results of the first? How can your data be used back on Earth or on the space station?

1 source per listed area of concentration above.

Inclinometer Project: How Tall Is It?

In this assignment you will use your inclinometer to find the height of a building, a tree, and a telephone pole. Something similar can be done to find diameters of planets.
You are going to find the angle between the horizon and the top of the building. Do it the same way you found the elevation of the Sun. Point the edge of the protractor at the top of the building and read off the degree mark under the string. Then use that degree mark to calculate the elevation of the top of the building. Just like you did for the Sun.
Let’s say the angle is 35 degrees. The height of the building equals the sine of 35, times the distance to the building, thus: height = tangent (35) x distance.
The tangent is an example of a trig function. Those of you who have taken algebra II are acquainted with trig functions (for better or worse). You don’t need to know what they are in order to do this project.
I will calculate the tangent of a range of angles for you:
tangent 10 = 0.176
tangent 15 = 0.268
tangent 20 = 0.364
tangent 25 = 0.466
tangent 30 = 0.577
tangent 35 = 0.700
tangent 40 = 0.839
tangent 45 = 1.0
45 degrees is the largest angle I want you to use. If your angle is bigger than 45, back up. Adjust your distance from the building until the angle from the horizon to the top of the building is one of the numbers in the list. 25 or 30, for example, rather than 28.
To calculate the height of the building, you also need the distance to the building. The most accurate method to get the distance is to use a tape measure. If not that, you could measure the length of your shoe, and walk heel to toe from your angle-measuring position, to the building, counting the little baby steps. Multiply the length of your shoe by the number of baby steps to get the distance to the building. Worst of all, you can measure the length of a full stride, and count the steps to the building. The more accurate your distance to the building, the more accurate the calculated height.
The measured angle between the horizon and the top of the building is 35 degrees. The length of my shoe is 11 inches. After measuring the angle, I walked 90 baby steps to the building. 90 x 11 inches = 990 inches. 990 inches / 12 inches per foot = 82.5 feet.
h = tangent (35) x d
h = 0.700 x 82.5 feet
h = 57.8 feet
57.8 feet is actually how high the top of the building is above your eyeballs. How high is the top of the building above the ground? You figure it out.
Do this two more times, for a tree, and for a telephone pole.
Show all arithmetic operations, or NO CREDIT. Plus, I can’t give you feedback if I can’t see what you did.

Explore the internet (or books or magazines) to find your favorite image related to astrobiology.

Explore the internet (or books or magazines) to find your favorite image related to astrobiology. Then:
Write a short paragraph (3-4 sentences) stating the science content of the image. Specifically, explain (i) what the image is about, and (ii) how the image is connected to astrobiology (not just astronomy or biology). How is it related to what we’ve been learning in this course? If it is an astronomy image, like a Hubble Space Telescope image of a galaxy or nebula, make sure you explain the connection to life: How is the image related to the origin, evolution, or search for life? If it only related to astronomy and does not have a clear and direct connection with biology, then it will not earn full credit.
Then in a second paragraph, very briefly explain why you chose the image (2-3 sentences is fine).
Obviously, include the image in your assignment (put it at the start). Be sure to fully cite the source of the image (URL) and give proper credit to whoever created the image. Put this right at the top of your homework. Be sure to run a spelling checker on you document to make sure you don’t lose points for typos and dumb things like that.


Apr 26th, 2022 Read this article by Dr. Ethan Siegel and follow his advice for viewing the night skies at

Read this article by Dr. Ethan Siegel and follow his advice for viewing the night skies at the end of March. The assignment is for you to use…

Stellarium to get the coordinates of objects in the night sky
Take a screenshot of the night sky you see in Stellarium
Write a brief report on the objects you were able to see which includes the coordinates you looked up using Stellarium and the screenshots from your search.

ASTR- Discussion

The Skies always have interesting things to look for but don’t listen to me- Find a cool astro event to view and share why you want to see it, and how you would go about it.
1) Write an initial post of 100-150 words that tells about an astronomy related viewing event.
2)Share the link or info site
3) Make a short response post to another student
Future Cosmic link

Using Your Sextant (Inclinometer)

It’s time to do something with your sextants. We are calling the inclinometer a sextant, now. The building of the sextant was worth ten points. Using it to determine the elevation of the Sun at around noon will also be worth ten points. The elevation of the Sun is the angle between the horizon and the Sun.
You will make observations of the Sun over a period of about four hours, from 10 a.m. to 2 pm., on a sunny day.
Sight along the straight edge of your sextant. Aim the straight edge at the Sun, just as you would aim the barrel of a gun. The weighted string will hang against one of the degree markings on the protractor. If you have an assistant, instruct him/her/it to take note of the degree mark the string hangs against. For best accuracy, use the outside arc of degree marks (as opposed to the inside arc). If no partner, try to press the string against the protractor as soon as you have sighted in the Sun, keeping the string in place, before you lower the sextant. Do this as fast as you can. Do not stare at the Sun for more than a few seconds. Wear sunglasses if possible.
Record the number under the string (the value of the degree mark), but do not report it as the elevation of the Sun. To find the elevation of the Sun, subtract the value of the degree mark from 90 if the value of the degree mark is less than 90. For example, if the string lies against 55, the elevation of the Sun would be 90 – 55 = 35 degrees. If the value of the degree mark is greater than 90, subtract 90 from the value of the degree mark. For example, if the string lies against 130, the elevation of the Sun would be 130 – 90 = 40 degrees.
The Sun’s elevation reaches a maximum at local noon (which is not necessarily noon on the clock, but close). So, take an elevation measurement at 10 a.m., one at 10:30, 11:00, etc., every half hour until 2 pm. You will see the elevation numbers rise to a max, then decrease again. That max occurs at around noon. Eight elevations should be reported. I’ll knock a point off for every missing elevation.
Your measured elevations should fall within the range of 25 degrees to 50 degrees. I’m going to measure it too, so don’t just make stuff up. Submit a table of times and elevations. You must show your elevation calculations.
You must have credit for your inclinometer/sextant (previous project) to be eligible for points on this project.

I am to write a three page research report on the planet Mars, using MLA format. I am to

I am to write a three page research report on the planet Mars, using MLA format. I am to include at least four small pictures throughout the essay and site them under the picture, along with a reference page. I am to include at least three quotes from different sources about the planet as well and site them on the reference page. The paper must also include:
Descriiption of how it was formed
Descriiption of the planet
Major discoveries made
Location in the universe
Date discovered
Any significant details about the planet

Astronomy Question

You have some background information to apply while reading through the Calendars from the Sky (链接到外部网站。). Go through the Our Year (链接到外部网站。), Various Calendars (链接到外部网站。), Our Week (链接到外部网站。), and Timeline (链接到外部网站。) and then go to the left side of each section and go through those parts also.
Earlier in the module, you responded to the following: Early astronomers thought the Earth was stationary and that the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars all moved around the Earth. Today, most of us believe that the Earth and planets orbit the Sun rather than the other way around. What is the evidence that developed your view of how the solar system works? How have your ideas changed since reading the text and completing this much of the module? Explain your reasoning.
Write an essay explaining the progression in astronomy from the Geocentric model to and including Isaac Newton’s laws. Be specific and detailed with each phase of the progression or astronomer’s viewpoint. You will need to include each astronomer’s contributions to the progression of astronomy. Please include the following: Copernicus, Brahe, Galilei, Newton, and Kepler. NOTE: I do not require any specific length on this essay. You must, however, be organized, focused, and complete with your thoughts.
the textbook:… Please read chapters 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, and chapter 3.

ASTR- Discussion

PromptShare a movie, or book, or game, which depicts travel any light speed or greater than light speed.
What does it look like?
How does it work? Ever wonder why many use the same view- you know, the stream of stars effect…same effect in Star Trek, any truth to that?
What’s it like to go faster than light?
General discussion to get you thinking, very open topic
What to Do
You know the drill, have an initial post of 150-200 words, with a embedded picture if appropriate, and make at least one response comment of 50-100 words to another student.

Astronomy Question

1. Suppose that the Earth spun backwards but still orbits the Sun…what would happen to the seasons and the day/night cycle in thissituation for San Diego? Why? What would happen at the Northand South Poles? What would happen at the Equator? How wouldthis affect life on Earth?
2. Suppose that the Moon moved closer to the Earth…how would the phases appear to us on Earth? Would we have all of the lunar phases, some of the phases, or none of the phases? Would you have eclipses? Why or why not? How would tides change?