please look at the attached files.
you need to read the module, and answer some of the listed questions here:
(i) What, according to Jeremy Bentham, is the gist of the principle of utility?
(ii) How did John Stuart Mill articulate the principle of utility?
(iii) What were the key modifications to the theory of utilitarianism that Mill advocated?
(iv) How does the case of the small-town sheriff reflect a common criticism of utilitarianism? How have utilitarians responded to that specific criticism?
(v) Which additional criticisms of utilitarianism did Mill address in his defense of the theory?
(vi) What criticisms and objections continue to be raised against utilitarianism in contemporary times?
(vii) What are Immanuel Kant’s conceptions of humanity and freedom, and how are they relevant for his moral theory?
(viii) According to Kant, how do hypothetical imperatives and categorical imperatives differ?
(ix) What are Kant’s first and the second formulations of the categorical imperative?
(x) How does Kant respond to the example of the man contemplating suicide, and how does that response reflect core aspects of his theory of morality?
(xi) Why is the case of the inquiring murderer a significant challenge for Kant’s theory, and how did Kant himself respond to the challenge?
(xii) What criticisms and objections continue to be raised against Kantian deontology in contemporary times?
(xiii) Consider why some moral theorists have found both utilitarian consequentialism and Kantian deontology to be overly focused on “conduct”, and have raised the concern that both those theories pay insufficient attention to considerations of “virtue” and “character”.
(xiv) Why, and how, might the moral theories of Utilitarian Consequentialism and Kantian Deontology have significant implications for how cases get decided, and which laws get passed, or reformed?